כֿ Format Kindle ᆑ Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence store ᐎ Author Max Tegmark ᔳ

כֿ Format Kindle ᆑ Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence store ᐎ Author Max Tegmark ᔳ כֿ Format Kindle ᆑ Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence store ᐎ Author Max Tegmark ᔳ THE THREE STAGES OF LIFE The question of how to define life is notoriously controversial Competing definitions abound, some of which include highly specific requirements such as being composed of cells, which might disqualify both future intelligent machines and extraterrestrial civilizations Since we dont want to limit our thinking about the future of life to the species weve encountered so far, lets instead define life very broadly, simply as a process that can retain its complexity and replicate Whats replicated isnt matter made of atoms but information made of bits specifying how the atoms are arranged When a bacterium makes a copy of its DNA, no new atoms are created, but a new set of atoms are arranged in the same pattern as the original, thereby copying the information In other words, we can think of life as a self replicating information processing system whose information software determines both its behavior and the blueprints for its hardware Like our universe itself, life gradually grew complex and interesting, and as Ill now explain, I find it helpful to classify life forms into three levels of sophistication Life 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 Its still an open question how, when and where life first appeared in our universe, but there is strong evidence that, here on Earth, life first appeared about 4 billion years ago Before long, our planet was teeming with a diverse panoply of life forms The most successful ones, which soon outcompeted the rest, were able to react to their environment in some way Specifically, they were what computer scientists call intelligent agents entities that collect information about their environment from sensors and then process this information to decide how to act back on their environment This can include highly complex information processing, such as when you use information from our eyes and ears to decide what to say in a conversation But it can also involve hardware and software thats quite simple For example, many bacteria have a sensor measuring the sugar concentration in the liquid around them and can swim using propeller shaped structures called flagella The hardware linking the sensor to the flagella might implement the following simple but useful algorithm If my sugar concentration sensor reports a lower value than a couple of seconds ago, then reverse the rotation of my flagella so that I change direction Whereas youve learned how to speak and countless other skills, bacteria arent great learners Their DNA specifies not only the design of their hardware, such as sugar sensors and flagella, but also the design of their software They never learn to swim toward sugar instead, that algorithm was hard coded into their DNA from the start There was of course a learning process of sorts, but it didnt take place during the lifetime of that particular bacterium Rather, it occurred during the preceding evolution of that species of bacteria, through a slow trial and error process spanning many generations, where natural selection favored those random DNA mutations that improved sugar consumption Some of these mutations helped by improving the design of flagella and other hardware, while other mutations improved the bacterial information processing system that implements the sugar finding algorithm and other software Such bacteria are an example of what Ill call Life 1.0 life where both the hardware and software is evolved rather than designed You and I, on the other hand, are examples of Life 2.0 life whose hardware is evolved, but whose software is largely designed By your software, I mean all the algorithms and knowledge that you use to process the information from your senses and decide what to doeverything from the ability to recognize your friends when you see them to your ability to walk, read, write, calculate, sing and tell jokes You werent able to perform any of those tasks when you were born, so all this software got programmed into your brain later through the process we call learning Whereas your childhood curriculum is largely designed by your family and teachers, who decide what you should learn, you gradually gain power to design your own software Perhaps your school allows you to select a foreign language do you want to install a software module into your brain that enables you to speak French, or one that enables you to speak Spanish Do you want to learn to play tennis or chess Do you want to study to become a chef, a lawyer or a pharmacist Do you want to learn about artificial intelligence AI and the future of life by reading a book about it This ability of Life 2.0 to design its software enables it to be much smarter than Life 1.0 High intelligence requires both lots of hardware made of atoms and lots of software made of bits The fact that most of our human hardware is added after birth through growth is useful, since our ultimate size isnt limited by the width of our moms birth canal In the same way, the fact that most of our human software is added after birth through learning is useful, since our ultimate intelligence isnt limited by how much information can be transmitted to us at conception via our DNA, 1.0 style I weigh about 25 times than when I was born, and the synaptic connections that link the neurons in my brain can store about a hundred thousand times information than the DNA that I was born with Your synapses store all your knowledge and skills as roughly 100 terabytes worth of information, while your DNA stores merely about a gigabyte, barely enough to store a single movie download So its physically impossible for an infant to be born speaking perfect English and ready to ace her college entrance exams theres no way the information could have been pre loaded into her brain, since the main information module she got from her parents her DNA lacks sufficient information storage capacity The ability to design its software enables Life 2.0 to be not only smarter than Life 1.0, but also flexible If the environment changes, 1.0 can only adapt by slowly evolving over many generations 2.0, on the other hand, can adapt almost instantly, via a software update For example, bacteria frequently encountering antibiotics may evolve drug resistance over many generations, but an individual bacterium wont change its behavior at all, while a girl learning that she has a peanut allergy will immediately change her behavior to start avoiding peanuts This flexibility gives Life 2.0 an even greater edge at the population level even though the information in our human DNA hasnt evolved dramatically over the past 50,000 years, the information collectively stored in our brains, books and computers has exploded By installing a software module enabling us to communicate through sophisticated spoken language, we ensured that the most useful information stored in one persons brain could get copied to other brains, potentially surviving even after the original brain died By installing a software module enabling us to read and write, we became able to store and share vastly information than people could memorize By developing brain software capable of producing technology i.e., by studying science and engineering , we enabled much of the worlds information to be accessed by many of the worlds humans with just a few clicks This flexibility has enabled Life 2.0 to dominate Earth Freed from its genetic shackles, humanitys combined knowledge has kept growing at an accelerating pace as each breakthrough enabled the next language, writing, the printing press, modern science, computers, the internet, etc This ever faster cultural evolution of our shared software has emerged as the dominant force shaping our human future, rendering our glacially slow biological evolution almost irrelevant Yet despite the most powerful technologies we have today, all life forms we know of remain fundamentally limited by their biological hardware None can live for a million years, memorize all of Wikipedia, understand all known science or enjoy spaceflight without a spacecraft None can transform our largely lifeless cosmos into a diverse biosphere that will flourish for billions or trillions of years, enabling our universe to finally fulfill its potential and wake up fully All this requires life to undergo a final upgrade, to Life 3.0, which can design not only its software but also its hardware In other words, Life 3.0 is the master of its own destiny, finally fully free from its evolutionary shackles The boundaries between the three stages of life are slightly fuzzy If bacteria are Life 1.0 and humans are Life 2.0, then you might classify mice as 1.1 they can learn many things, but not enough to develop language or invent the internet Moreover, because they lack language, what they learn gets largely lost when they die, not passed on to the next generation Similarly, you might argue that todays humans should count as Life 2.1 we can perform minor hardware upgrades such as implanting artificial teeth, knees and pacemakers, but nothing as dramatic as getting ten times taller or getting a thousand times bigger brains In summary, we can divide the development of life into three stages, distinguished by lifes ability to design itself Life 1.0 biological stage evolves its hardware and software Life 2.0 cultural stage evolves its hardware, designs much of its software Life 3.0 technological stage designs its hardware and software After 13.8 billion years of cosmic evolution, development has accelerated dramatically here on Earth Life 1.0 arrived about 4 billion years ago, Life 2.0 we humans arrived about a hundred millennia ago, and many artificial AI researchers think that Life 3.0 may arrive during the coming century, perhaps even during our lifetime, spawned by progress in AI What will happen, and what will this mean for us Thats the topic of this book.Original, accessible, and provocative Tegmark successfully gives clarity to the many faces of AI, creating a highly readable book that complements The Second Machine Ages economic perspective on the near term implications of recent accomplishments in AI and the detailed analysis of how we might get from where we are today to AGI and even the superhuman AI in Superintelligence At one point, Tegmark quotes Emerson Life is a journey, not a destination The same may be said of the book itself Enjoy the ride, and you will come out the other end with a greater appreciation of where people might take technology and themselves in the years ahead ScienceLucid and engaging, it has much to offer the general reader Mr Tegmarks explanation of how electronic circuitryor a human braincould produce something as evanescent and immaterial as thought is both elegant and enlightening But the idea that machine based superintelligence could somehow run amok is fiercely resisted by many computer scientists Yet the notion enjoys credence today than a few years ago, partly thanks to Mr Tegmark Wall Street JournalThis is a compelling guide to the challenges and choices in our quest for a great future of life, intelligence and consciousnesson Earth and beyond Elon Musk, Founder, CEO and CTO of SpaceX and co founder and CEO of Tesla MotorsAll of usnot only scientists, industrialists and generalsshould ask ourselves what can we do now to improve the chances ofreaping the benefits of future AI and avoiding the risks This is the most important conversation of our time, and Tegmarks thought provokingbook will help you join it Professor Stephen Hawking, Director of Research, Cambridge Centre for Theoretical Cosmology Tegmarks new book is a deeply thoughtful guide to the most important conversation of our time, about how to create a benevolent future civilization as wemerge our biological thinking with an even greater intelligence of our own creation Being an eminent physicist and the leader of the Future of Life Institute has given Max Tegmark a uniquevantage point from which to give the reader an inside scoop on the most important issue of our time, in a way thatisapproachable without being dumbed down Jaan Tallinn, co founder of Skype This is an exhilarating book that will change the way we think about AI, intelligence, and the future of humanity Bart Selman, Professor of Computer Science, Cornell University The unprecedented power unleashed by artificial intelligence means the next decade could be humanitys bestor worst Tegmark has written the most insightful and just plain fun exploration of AIs implicationsthat Ive ever read If you havent been exposed to Tegmarks joyful mind yet, youre in for a huge treat ProfessorErik Brynjolfsson, Director of the MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy and co author of The Second Machine AgeTegmark seeks to facilitate a much wider conversation about what kind of future we, as a species, would want to create Though the topics he coversAI, cosmology, values, even the nature of conscious experiencecan be fairly challenging, he presents them in an unintimidating manner that invites the reader to form her own opinions Nick Bostrom, Founder of Oxfords Future of Humanity Institute, author of SuperintelligenceI was riveted by this book The transformational consequences of AI may soon be upon usbut will they be utopian or catastrophic The jury is out, but this enlightening, lively and accessible book by adistinguished scientisthelps us to assess the odds.Professor Martin Rees, Astronomer Royal, cosmology pioneer, author of Our Final Hour In Tegmark s magnificent brain, each fact or idea appears toslip neatly into its appointed place like another little silver globe in an orrery the size of the universe There are spaces for Kant, Cold War historyand Dostoyevsky, for the behaviour of subatomic particles and the neuroscience of consciousness Tegmark describes the present, near future and distant possibilities of AI through a series of highly original thought experiments Tegmark is not personally wedded to any ofthese ideas He asks only that his readers make up their own minds In the meantime, he has forged a remarkable consensus on the need for AIresearchers to work on the mind bogglingly complex task of building digital chains that are strong and durable enough to hold a superintelligentmachine to our bidding This is a rich and visionary book and everyone should read it The Times UK Life 3.0 is far from the last word on AI and the future, but it provides a fascinating glimpse of the hard thinking required Stuart Russell, NatureTegmarks book, along with Nick Bostroms Superintelligence, stands out among the currentbooks about our possible AI futures Tegmark explains brilliantly many concepts in fields from computing to cosmology, writes with intellectual modesty and subtlety, does thereader the importantservice of defining his terms clearly, and rightly pays homage to the creative minds of science fiction writers who were, ofcourse, addressing these kinds of questions than half a century ago Its often very funny, too The Telegraph UK Exhilarating MIT physicist Tegmark surveys advances in artificial intelligence such as self driving cars and Jeopardy winning software, but focuses on the looming prospect of recursive self improvementAI systems that build smarter versions of themselves at an accelerating pace until their intellects surpass ours Tegmarks smart, freewheeling discussion leads to fascinating speculations on AI based civilizations spanning galaxies and eons Engrossing Publishers Weekly Life Being Human in the Age of Artificial Life which can design not only its software but also hardware In other words, is master own destiny, finally fully free from evolutionary shackles Intelligence by Max Tegmark Wikipedia Intelligence on FREE shipping qualifying offers New York Times Best Seller NPR NPR coverage News, author interviews, critics picks and Book review Tegmark, Knopf If there s one thing poised to change health care near future it artificial intelligence AI we are ignoring Allen Lane, To order a copy for , go guardianbookshop or call Free UK pp over Book Review human age new book squarely addresses what needs be done how He physicist at Massachusetts Institute Technology founder Future thinktank dedicated building friendly Audiobook So now Section lays out why all sudden everybody radar, prone critical coming decades, arranging present day as urgent point inside extensive range developmental history Earth Life Consciousness mathematical pattern Jun As physicist, sees people food, rearranged That makes his answer complicated questions like What consciousness simple It just math Why Because patterns Our Mathematical Universe Our My Quest Ultimate Nature Reality nonfiction Swedish American cosmologist TegmarkWritten popular science format, interweaves reviewer called an informative survey exciting recent developments astrophysics quantum theory with universe Max How get empowered, overpowered, Many researchers expect outsmart humans tasks jobs within enabling where re restricted laws physics, limits our MIT researcher separates real opportunities threats myths, describing concrete steps should take today ensure that ends up Infinity Is Beautiful Concept And Ruining Physics Feb The idea infinity underlies modern equations meaningless isn t necessary physics work The Case Parallel Universes Scientific American Known Mad unorthodox ideas passion adventure, scientific interests precision cosmology ultimate nature reality, Multiverso Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre Hiptesis del multiverso en fsica Clasificacin de El cosmlogo ha proporcionado una taxonoma para los universos existentes ms universo observableDe acuerdo clasificacin niveles definidos pueden ser entendidos como que abarcan y se expanden sobre previos Time NOT Physicists show EVERYTHING happens told space We portray reality either three dimensional place stuff time, four Photonics Modern Electro Magnetics Group SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS Maximal Spontaneous Photon Emission Energy Loss Electrons Yi Yang, Aviram Massuda, Charles Roques Carmes, Steven E Kooi, Thomas Christensen, G Johnson, John D Joannopoulos, Owen Miller, Ido Kaminer Marin Soljacic Physics, DOI Nanophotonic particle simulation inverse PhysicsGirl December Madame Figaro franais Girls under Follow Malala Yousafzai, Willow Smith, Sabrina Gonzalez Pasterski Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

    • Format Kindle
    • 384 pages
    • 1101970316
    • Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
    • Max Tegmark
    • Anglais
    • 2017-11-04T02:52+02:00