⌠ 礪 Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality free download ሥ Kindle Author Max Tegmark ᠁

⌠  礪 Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality free download ሥ Kindle Author Max Tegmark ᠁ ⌠ 礪 Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality free download ሥ Kindle Author Max Tegmark ᠁ Chapter 9Internal Reality, External Reality and Consensus RealitySweet exists by convention, bitter by convention, color by convention atoms and void alone exist in reality.Democritus, ca 400 B.C.Nooooo My suitcase They were already boarding my flight from Boston to Philadelphia,where I was supposed to help with a BBC documentary about Hugh Everett, when I realized that my hand wasnt holding a suitcase I ran back to the security checkpoint.Did someone just forget a black roll on bag here No, said the guard But there it isthats my suitcase, right there Thats not a black suitcase, said the guard Thats a teal suitcase Until then, Id never realized how color blind I was, and it was quitehumbling to realize that many assumptions Id previously made about realityand my wardrobewere dead wrong How could I ever trust what my senses told me about the outside world And if I couldnt, then how could I hope to ever know anything with certainty about the external reality After all, everything I know about the outside world and my untrustworthy senses, Ive learned from my senses This puts me on the same shaky epistemological footing as a prisoner whos spent his whole life in solitary confinement, whose only information about the outside world and his untrustworthy prison guard is what his prison guard has told him More generally, how can I trust what my conscious perceptions tell me about the world if I dont understand how my mind works This basic dilemma has been eloquently explored by philosophers throughout the ages, including titans such as Plato, Ren Descartes, David Hume and Immanuel Kant Socrates said The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing So how can we make further progress in our quest to understand reality So far in this book, weve taken a physics approach to exploring our external physical reality, zooming out to the transgalactic macrocosm and zooming in to the subatomic microcosm, attempting to understand things in terms of their basic building blocks such as elementary particles However, all we have direct knowledge of are instead qualia, the basic building blocks of our conscious perception, For introductions to the vast literature on consciousness by psychologists, neuroscientists, philosophers and others, I recommend the books about the mind in the Suggestions for Further Reading section exemplified by the redness of a rose, the sound of a cymbal, the smell of a steak, the taste of a tangerine or the pain of a pinprick So dont we also need to understand consciousness before we can fully understand physics I used to answer yes, thinking that we could never figure out the elusive theory of everything for our external physical reality without first understanding the distorting mental lens through which we perceive it But Ive changed my mind, and in this brief interlude chapter, I want to tell you why.External Reality and Internal RealityPerhaps youre thinking, Okay, Max, but Im not color blind And Im looking at the external reality right now with my own eyes, and Id have to be paranoid to think its not the way it looks But please try these simple experiments Experiment 1 Turn your head from left to right a few times Experiment 2 Move your eyes from left to right a few times, without moving your head.Did you notice how the first time, the external reality appeared to rotate, and the second time, it appeared to stay still, even though your eyeballs rotated both times This proves that what your minds eye is looking at isnt the external reality, but a reality model stored in your brain If you looked at the image recorded by a rotating video camera, youd clearly see it move as it did in Experiment 1 But your eyes are a form of biological video camera, so Experiment 2 shows that your consciousness isnt directly perceiving the images formed on their retinas Rather, as neuroscientists have now studied in great detail, the information recorded by your retinas gets processed in highly complex ways and is used to continually update an elaborate model of the outside world thats stored in your brain Take another look in front of you, and youll see that, thanks to this advanced information processing, your reality model is three dimensional even though the raw images from your retinas are two dimensional.I dont have a light switch near my bed, so Ill often take a good look at my bedroom and all the obstacles littering the floor, then turn off the light and walk to my bed Try it yourself put down this book, stand up, look around, and then walk a few steps with your eyes closed Can you see feel the objects in the room moving relative to you Thats your reality model being updated, this time using information from your leg movements rather than from your eyes Your brain continuously updates its reality model using any useful information it can get hold of, including sound, touch, smell and taste.Lets call this reality model your internal reality, because its the way you subjectively perceive the external reality from the internal vantage point of your mind This reality is internal also in the sense that it exists only internally to you your mind feels as if its looking at the outside world, while its actually looking only at a reality model inside your headwhich in turn is continually tracking whats outside your brain via elaborate but automatic processes that youre not consciously aware of.Its absolutely crucial that we dont conflate this internal reality with the external reality that its tracking, because the two are very different My brains internal reality is like the dashboard of my car a convenient summary of the most useful information Just as my cars dashboard tells me my speed, fuel level, motor temperature, and other things useful for a driver to be aware of, my brains dashboard reality model tells me my speed and position, my hunger level, the air temperature, highlights of my surroundings and other things useful for the operator of a human body to be aware of.The Truth, the Whole Truth and Nothing but the TruthOnce my cars dashboard malfunctioned and sent me to the garage with its CHECK ENGINE indicator illuminated even though nothing was wrong Similarly, there are many ways in which a persons reality model can malfunction and differ from the true external reality, giving rise to illusions incorrect perceptions of things that do exist in the external reality , omissions nonperception of things that do exist in the external reality and hallucinations perceptions of things that dont exist in the external reality If we swear under oath to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, we should be aware that our perceptions might violate all three with illusions, omissions and hallucinations, respectively.So metaphorically speaking, the CHECK ENGINE incident was my car hallucinatingor experiencing phantom pain I recently discovered that my car also suffers from an illusion based on its speedometer reading, it thinks its always driving two miles per hour faster than it really is Thats not bad compared to the vast list of human illusions that cognitive scientists have discovered, which afflict all our senses and distort our internal reality If your version of this figure is in color rather than black and white, youll probably see the lower dot in the left panel as orange and the upper dot as somewhat brown Figure 9.1 in the book shows two examples of optical illusions, where our visual system creates an internal reality different from the external reality In the external reality, the light from both of them has identical properties, with a wavelength around 600 nanometers If a spotlight beamed out such light, it would be orange light What about brown Have you ever seen a spotlight or a laser pointer produce a brown beam Well, you never will, because theres no such thing as brown light The color brown doesnt exist in the external reality, but only in your internal reality its simply what you perceive when seeing dim orange light against a darker background.For fun, I sometimes compare how the same news story is reported online by MSNBC, FOX News, the BBC, Al Jazeera, Pravda and elsewhere I find that when it comes to telling the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, its the second part that accounts for most of the differences in how they portray reality what they omit I think the same holds for our senses although they can produce hallucinations and illusions, its their omissions that account for most of the discrepancy between the internal and external realities My visual system omitted the information that distinguishes between black and teal suitcases, but even if youre not color blind, youre missing out on the vast majority of the information that light carries When I was taught in elementary school that all colors of light can be made up by mixing three primary colors red, green, and blue, I thought that this number three told us something fundamental about the external reality But I was wrong it teaches us only about the omissions of our visual system Specifically, it tells us that our retina has three kinds of cone cells, which take the thousands of numbers that can be measured in a spectrum of light see Figure 2.5 in Chapter 2 and keeps only three numbers, corresponding to the average light intensity across three broad ranges of wavelengths.Moreover, wavelengths of light outside of the narrow range 400700 nanometers go completely undetected by our visual system, and it came as quite a shock when human built detectors revealed that our external reality was vastly richer than wed realized, teeming with radio waves, microwaves, x rays, and gamma rays And vision isnt the only one of our senses thats guilty of omissions we cant hear the ultrasound chirping of mice, bats and dolphins were oblivious to most faint scents that dominate the olfactory inner reality of dogs, and so on Although some animal species capture visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory or other sensory information than we humans do, theyre all unaware of the sub atomic realm, the galaxy spangled cosmos, and the dark energy and dark matter that, as we saw in Chapter 4, makes up 96% of our external reality.Consensus RealityIn the first two parts of this book, weve seen how our physical world can be remarkably well described by mathematical equations, fueling the hope that one day equations can be found for a theory of everything, perfectly describing our external reality on all scales The ultimate triumph of physics would be to start with the external reality from the bird perspective of a mathematician studying these equations which are ideally simple enough to fit on her T shirt and to derive from them her internal reality, the way she subjectively perceives it from her frog perspective inside the external reality To accomplish this would clearly require a detailed understanding of how consciousness works, including illusions, omissions, hallucinations and other complications.However, between the external reality and the internal reality, theres also a third and intermediate consensus reality, as illustrated in Figure 9.2 in the book This is the version of reality that we life forms here on Earth all agree on the 3 D positions and motions of macroscopic objects, and other everyday attributes of the world for which we have a shared description in terms of familiar concepts from classical physics Table 9.1 summarizes these reality descriptions and perspectives and how theyre interrelated.Each of us has our own personal inner reality, perceived from the subjective perspective of our own position, orientation and state of mind, and distorted by our personal cognitive biases in your inner reality, dreams are real and the world turns upside down when you stand on your head In contrast, the consensus reality is shared When you give your friend driving directions to your place, you do your best to trans form your description from one involving subjective concepts from your inner reality such as here and in the direction Im facing to shared concepts from the consensus reality such as on 70 Vassar Street and north Since we scientists need to be precise and quantitative when we refer to our shared consensus reality, we try extra hard to be objective we say that light has a 600 nanometer wavelength instead of orange color and that something has CH3COOC5H11 molecules instead of banana flavor The consensus reality isnt free from some shared illusions relative to the external reality, as well elaborate on below for example, cats, bats and robots also experience the same quantum randomness and relativistic time dilation However, its by definition free from illusions that are unique to biological minds, and therefore decouples from the issue of how our human consciousness works The internal reality may feel teal deficient to me, black and white to a seal, iridescent to a bird seeing four primary colors, and still different to a bee seeing polarized light, a bat using sonar, a blind person with keener touch and hearing, or the latest robotic vacuum cleaner, but we all agree on whether the door is open.This is why Ive changed my mind although understanding the detailed nature of human consciousness is a fascinating challenge in its own right, its not necessary for a fundamental theory of physics, which need only derive the consensus reality from its equations In other words, what Douglas Adams called the ultimate question of life, the universe and everything splits cleanly into two parts that can be tackled separately the challenge for physics is deriving the consensus reality from the external reality, and the challenge for cognitive science is to derive the internal reality from the consensus reality These are two great challenges for the third millennium Theyre each daunting in their own right, and Im relieved that we need not solve them simultaneously Chapter 9 is continued in the bookOur Mathematical Universe is nothing if not impressive Brilliantly argued and beautifully written, it is never less than thought provoking about the greatest mysteries of our existence New York Times An amazing ride through the rich landscape of contemporary cosmology Physics could do with characters like Tegmark an imaginative intellect and a charismatic presence Clive Cookson Financial Times Tegmark is one of the rock gods of cosmology, a select group of thinkers who are using their mathematical prowess to tear up all our cherished notions about the universe, and replace it with a cosmos that is so bewilderingly weird that it makes the plot of most science fiction novels look like an Ikea instruction leaflet Telegraph Our Mathematical Universe boldly confronts one of the deepest questions why is mathematics so spectacularly successful at describing the cosmos Through lively writing and wonderfully accessible explanations, Max Tegmark one of the world s leading theoretical physicists guides the reader to a possible answer, and reveals how, if it s right, our understanding of reality itself would be radically altered Brian Greene Our Mathematical Universe Wikipedia Our My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality is a nonfiction book by Swedish American cosmologist Max TegmarkWritten in popular science format, interweaves what New York Times reviewer called an informative survey exciting recent developments astrophysics and quantum theory with Tegmark s mathematical universe Similar authors to follow MIT professor who loves thinking about life big questions, has authored books than technical papers on topics from cosmology artificial intelligence On Mathematics, Physics, Truth Reality On NOTE These pages deal Philosophy Metaphysics Mathematics treatment Wave Structure Matter WSM Big Bang The Big prevailing cosmological model earliest known periods through its subsequent large scale evolution describes how expanded very high density temperature state, offers comprehensive explanation broad range phenomena, including world National Geographic A month subscription packed expertly written articles features wildlife, geography, science, history, culture, environment current events Misunderstood Sun holoscience The Astronomers Dark Milky Way blazing spectacle southern hemisphere sky stars remind me school experiment darkened room radiant pinpoints light appearing glass walls electric discharge tube as near vacuum reached inside Is One Many Here How We Can Find Sep , Opening box find cat that both dead alive, just paradox, one many, resulting our limited NOVA Official Website Elegant Universe Pt Einstein Dream Combining laws explains it all Holy Grail physics Scientists evidence multidimensional With help methods algebraic topology, scientists have fond structures geometric spaces human brain networks universe Definition Facts Britannica Universe, whole cosmic system matter energy which Earth, therefore race, partHumanity traveled long road since societies imagined Sun, Moon main objects creation, rest being formed almost afterthought Today Earth only Why Is Filled Spirals you tell why spiral design seems omnipresent natural I see this pattern plant tendrils, flowers leaves, pinecones, unfurling needles, well astronomy Dorothea Fox Jakob, Toronto short answer is, sadly, we don t really know Relativity Calculator Special General Relativity are then quite out way, when think things contain within themselves qualities appear us them For which, perhaps, understand aright, ought look not beyond earth atmosphere, but even sun or remotest star eyes yet discovered Richard Dawkins Why so strange TED Talk Subtitles Transcript Biologist Richard makes case improbable looking at frame reference limits understanding Reasons May Live Multiverse Space live may be there In fact, could infinite number universes making up multiverse abundance elements, microwave background ELECTRIC Find Out logic applied QM small ball rock space unimaginable vastness Not Even Wrong new out, entitled getting lot attention ve review Wall Street Journal, now available although behind paywall, if subscriber, can try here There also old blog posting journey explore mysteries uncovered discover nature reality Bang, distant future, parallel worlds, sub atomic intergalactic none they seem Written hypothesis posits structure divided into three Parts first deals macroscopic time second atoms smaller some such randomness and, third discussion implications two The Mystery Given physical comprised properties, posited mathematics language universe, whose reveal appears YouTube Oct isn described mathematics, Specifically, doesn properties fundamentally Quotes Tegmark If Hypothesis correct, structure, description, infinitely intelligent mathematician should able arXiv idea extreme argue math ematics de ned sense After elaborating underlying assumptions Section II, discuss variety Sections III VII Guardian assemblage these Level containing observable But Mathematical Description MUH external That merely specifically, structureMathematical existence equals existence, exist mathematically physically LibraryThing Review User ajlewis This was difficult read did feel understood most it, glimpse construct Audiobook Audible renowned takes whirlwind tour past, present other lucid clear examples, provides master measure cosmos, possible Universes Home Kavli Institute Max Life Being Human Age Artificial Intelligence Life Intelligence FREE shipping qualifying Best Seller Consciousness Jun As physicist, sees people food, rearranged his complicated questions like What consciousness simple It Because patterns get empowered, overpowered, AI researchers expect outsmart humans tasks jobs decades, enabling future where re restricted physics, physicist researcher separates real opportunities threats myths, describing concrete steps take today ensure ends Infinity Beautiful Concept And Ruining Physics Feb infinity underlies modern equations meaningless necessary work Are Living Computer Simulation Scientific American essential guide awe inspiring advances technology, explaining change shape lives Case Parallel Known Mad unorthodox ideas passion adventure, scientific interests precision ultimate reality, Multiverso Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre Hiptesis del multiverso en fsica Clasificacin El cosmlogo ha proporcionado una taxonoma para los universos existentes ms universo observableDe acuerdo clasificacin Tegmark, niveles definidos pueden ser entendidos como que abarcan y se expanden sobre previos Fabric Cosmos Cosmos, four hour series based author Brian Greene, frontiers piecing together Photonics Modern Electro Magnetics Group SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS Maximal Spontaneous Photon Emission Energy Loss Free Electrons Yi Yang, Aviram Massuda, Charles Roques Carmes, Steven E Kooi, Thomas Christensen, G Johnson, John D Joannopoulos, Owen Miller, Ido Kaminer Marin Soljacic DOI Nanophotonic particle simulation inverse PhysicsGirl December Madame Figaro franais Girls under Follow Malala Yousafzai, Willow Smith, Sabrina Gonzalez Pasterski MIT Department Area Physics Astrophysics Cosmology Theory Research Interests Professor research focused cosmology, eg combining theoretical measurements place sharp tegmark Twitter latest Tweets my Facebook likes talking official page book, connect not Watch videoMany Closer Truth Massachusetts Technology He holds BS BA Economics ensemble theory, speculative everything TOE proposed IMDb industry contacts talent representation Access development titles IMDb Get news leading trades Something rather Nothing no world, nothing all, blank Author Future Institute explored Speaker TED driven curiosity, works use technology Goodreads quotes better guarantee failure convincing yourself success impossible, never trying way information feels processed certain complex ways Real knowledge extent ignorance Confucius ignoring rtificial will probably important agent st century transform economy, politics own bodies minds Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality

    • Format Kindle
    • 403 pages
    • 1846144760
    • Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality
    • Max Tegmark
    • Anglais
    • 2016-08-20T23:05+03:00