ಪ Many ᘇ 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created ಾ PDF Author Charles C Mann ೩

ಪ Many ᘇ 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created  ಾ PDF Author Charles C Mann ೩ ಪ Many ᘇ 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created ಾ PDF Author Charles C Mann ೩ The Seams of Panagaea Although it had just finished raining, the air was hot and close Nobody else was in sight the only sound other than those from insects and gulls was the staticky low crashing of Caribbean waves Around me on the sparsely covered red soil was a scatter of rectangles laid out by lines of stones the outlines of now vanished buildings, revealed by archaeologists Cement pathways, steaming faintly from the rain, ran between them One of the buildings had imposing walls than the others The researchers had covered it with a new roof, the only structure they had chosen to protect from the rain Standing like a sentry by its entrance was a hand lettered sign Casa Almirante, Admirals House It marked the first American residence of Christopher Columbus, Admiral of the Ocean Sea, the man whom generations of schoolchildren have learned to call the discoverer of the New World La Isabela, as this community was called, is situated on the north side of the great Caribbean island of Hispaniola, in what is now the Dominican Republic It was the initial attempt by Europeans to make a permanent base in the Americas To be precise, La Isabela marked the beginning of consequential European settlementVikings had established a short lived village in Newfoundland five centuries before The admiral laid out his new domain at the confluence of two small, fast rushing rivers a fortified center on the north bank, a satellite community of farms on the south bank For his home, ColumbusCristbal Coln, to give him the name he answered to at the timechose the best location in town a rocky promontory in the northern settlement, right at the waters edge His house was situated perfectly to catch the afternoon light Today La Isabela is almost forgotten Sometimes a similar fate appears to threaten its founder Coln is by no means absent from history textbooks, of course, but in them he seems ever less admirable and important He was a cruel, deluded man, todays critics say, who stumbled upon the Caribbean by luck An agent of imperialism, he was in every way a calamity for the Americas first inhabitants Yet a different but equally contemporary perspective suggests that we should continue to take notice of the admiral Of all the members of humankind who have ever walked the earth, he alone inaugurated a new era in the history of life.The king and queen of Spain, Fernando Ferdinand II and Isabel I, backed Colns first voyage grudgingly Transoceanic travel in those days was heart toppingly expensive and riskythe equivalent, perhaps, of spaceshuttle flights today Despite relentless pestering, Coln was able to talk the monarchs into supporting his scheme only by threatening to take the project to France He was riding to the frontier, a friend wrote later, when the queen sent a court bailiff posthaste to fetch him back The story is probably exaggerated Still, it is clear that the sovereigns reservations drove the admiral to whittle down his expedition, if not his ambitions, to a minimum three small ships the biggest may have been less than sixty feet long , a combined crew of about ninety Coln himself had to contribute a quarter of the budget, according to a collaborator, probably by borrowing it from Italian merchants.Everything changed with his triumphant return in March of 1493, bearing golden ornaments, brilliantly colored parrots, and as many as ten captive Indians The king and queen, now enthusiastic, dispatched Coln just six months later on a second, vastly larger expedition seventeen ships, a combined crew of perhaps fifteen hundred, among them a dozen or priests charged with bringing the faith to these new lands Because the admiral believed he had found a route to Asia, he was sure that China and Japan and all their opulent goodswere only a short journey beyond The goal of this second expedition was to create a permanent bastion for Spain in the heart of Asia, a headquarters for further exploration and trade.The new colony, predicted one of its founders, will be widely renowned for its many inhabitants, its elaborate buildings, and its magnificent walls Instead La Isabela was a catastrophe, abandoned barely five years after its creation Over time its structures vanished, their very stones stripped to build other, successful towns When a U.S.Venezuelan archaeological team began excavating the site in the late 1980s, the inhabitants of La Isabela were so few that the scientists were able to move the entire settlement to a nearby hillside Today it has a couple of roadside fish restaurants, a single, failing hotel, and a little visited museum On the edge of town, a church, built in 1994 but already showing signs of age, commemorates the first Catholic Mass celebrated in the Americas Watching the waves from the admirals ruined home, I could easily imagine disappointed tourists thinking that the colony had left nothing meaningful behind that there was no reason, aside from the pretty beach, for anyone to pay attention to La Isabela But that would be a mistake.Babies born on the day the admiral founded La IsabelaJanuary 2, 1494 came into a world in which direct trade and communication between western Europe and East Asia were largely blocked by the Islamic nations between and their partners in Venice and Genoa , sub Saharan Africa had little contact with Europe and next to none with South and East Asia, and the Eastern and Western hemispheres were almost entirely ignorant of each others very existence By the time those babies had grandchildren, slaves from Africa mined silver in the Americas for sale to China Spanish merchants waited impatiently for the latest shipments of Asian silk and porcelain from Mexico and Dutch sailors traded cowry shells from the Maldive Islands, in the Indian Ocean, for human beings in Angola, on the coast of the Atlantic Tobacco from the Caribbean ensorcelled the wealthy and powerful in Madrid, Madras, Mecca, and Manila Group smoke ins by violent young men in Edo Tokyo would soon lead to the formation of two rival gangs, the Bramble Club and the Leather breeches Club The shogun jailed seventy of their members, then banned smoking.Long distance trade had occurred for than a thousand years, much of it across the Indian Ocean China had for centuries sent silk to the Mediterranean by the Silk Road, a route that was lengthy, dangerous, and, for those who survived, hugely profitable But nothing like this worldwide exchange had existed before, still less sprung up so quickly, or functioned so continuously No previous trade networks included both of the globes two hemispheres nor had they operated on a scale large enough to disrupt societies on opposite sides of the planet By founding La Isabela, Coln initiated permanent European occupation in the Americas And in so doing he began the era of globalizationthe single, turbulent exchange of goods and services that today engulfs the entire habitable world.Newspapers usually describe globalization in purely economic terms, but it is also a biological phenomenon indeed, from a long term perspective it may be primarily a biological phenomenon Two hundred and fifty million years ago the world contained a single landmass known to scientists as Pangaea Geological forces broke up this vast expanse, splitting Eurasia and the Americas Over time the two divided halves of Pangaea developed wildly different suites of plants and animals Before Coln a few venturesome land creatures had crossed the oceans and established themselves on the other side Most were insects and birds, as one would expect, but the list also includes, surprisingly, a few farm speciesbottle gourds, coconuts, sweet potatoesthe subject today of scholarly head scratching Otherwise, the world was sliced into separate ecological domains Colns signal accomplishment was, in the phrase of historian Alfred W Crosby, to reknit the seams of Pangaea After 1492 the worlds ecosystems collided and mixed as European vessels carried thousands of species to new homes across the oceans The Columbian Exchange, as Crosby called it, is the reason there are tomatoes in Italy, oranges in the United States, chocolates in Switzerland, and chili peppers in Thailand To ecologists, the Columbian Exchange is arguably the most important event since the death of the dinosaurs.Unsurprisingly, this vast biological upheaval had repercussions on human kind Crosby argued that the Columbian Exchange underlies much of the history we learn in the classroomit was like an invisible wave, sweeping along kings and queens, peasants and priests, all unknowing The claim was controversial indeed, Crosbys manuscript, rejected by every major academic publisher, ended up being published by such a tiny press that he once joked to me that his book had been distributed by tossing it on the street, and hoping readers happened on it But over the decades since he coined the term, a growing number of researchers have come to believe that the ecological paroxysm set off by Colns voyagesas much as the economic convulsion he beganwas one of the establishing events of the modern world.On Christmas Day, 1492, Colns first voyage came to an abrupt end when his flagship, the Santa Mara, ran aground off the northern coast of Hispaniola Because his two remaining vessels, the Nia and Pinta, were too small to hold the entire crew, he was forced to leave thirty eight men behind Coln departed for Spain while those men were building an encampment a scatter of makeshift huts surrounded by a crude palisade, adjacent to a larger native village The encampment was called La Navidad Christmas , after the day of its involuntary creation its precise location is not known today Hispaniolas native people have come to be known as the Taino The conjoined Spanish Taino settlement of La Navidad was the intended destination of Colns second voyage He arrived there in triumph, the head of a flotilla, his crewmen swarming the shrouds in their eagerness to see the new land, on November 28, 1493, eleven months after he had left his men behind.He found only ruin both settlements, Spanish and Taino, had been razed We saw everything burned and the clothing of Christians lying on the weeds, the ships doctor wrote Nearby Taino showed the visitors the bodies of eleven Spaniards, covered by the vegetation that had grown over them The Indians said that the sailors had angered their neighbors by raping some women and murdering some men In the midst of the conflict a second Taino group had swooped down and overwhelmed both sides After nine days of fruitless search for survivors Coln left to find a promising spot for his base Struggling against contrary winds, the fleet took almost a month to crawl a hundred miles east along the coast On January 2, 1494, Coln arrived at the shallow bay where he would found La Isabela.Almost immediately the colonists ran short of food and, worse, water In a sign of his inadequacy as an administrator, the admiral had failed to inspect the water casks he had ordered they, predictably, leaked Ignoring all complaints of hunger and thirst, the admiral decreed that his men would clear and plant vegetable patches, erect a two story fortress, and enclose the main, northern half of the new enclave within high stone walls Inside the walls the Spaniards built perhaps two hundred houses, small like the huts we use for bird hunting and roofed with weeds, one man complained Most of the new arrivals viewed these labors as a waste of time Few actually wanted to set up shop in La Isabela, still less till its soil Instead they regarded the colony as a temporary base camp for the quest for riches, especially gold Coln himself was ambivalent On the one hand, he was supposed to be governing a colony that was establishing a commercial entrept in the Americas On the other hand, he was supposed to be at sea, continuing his search for China The two roles conflicted, and Coln was never able to resolve the conflict On April 24 Coln sailed off to find China Before leaving, he ordered his military commander, Pedro Margarit, to lead four hundred men into the rugged interior to seek Indian gold mines After finding only trivial quantities of goldand not much foodin the mountains, Margarits charges, tattered and starving, came back to La Isabela, only to discover that the colony, too, had little to eatthose left behind, resentful, had refused to tend gardens The irate Margarit hijacked three ships and fled to Spain, promising to brand the entire enterprise as a waste of time and money Left behind with no food, the remaining colonists took to raiding Taino storehouses Infuriated, the Indians struck back, setting off a chaotic war This was the situation that confronted Coln when he returned to La Isabela five months after his departure, dreadfully sick and having failed to reach China.A loose alliance of four Taino groups faced off against the Spaniards and one Taino group that had thrown its lot in with the foreigners The Taino, who had no metal, could not withstand assaults with steel weapons But they made the fight costly for the Spaniards In an early form of chemical warfare, the Indians threw gourds stuffed with ashes and ground hot peppers at their attackers, unleashing clouds of choking, blinding smoke Protective bandannas over their faces, they charged through the tear gas, killing Spaniards The intent was to push out the foreignersan unthinkable course to Coln, who had staked everything on the voyage When the Spaniards counterattacked, the Taino retreated scorched earth style, destroying their own homes and gardens in the belief, Coln wrote scornfully, that hunger would drive us from the land Neither side could win The Taino alliance could not eject the Spaniards from Hispaniola But the Spaniards were waging war on the people who provided their food supply total victory would be a total disaster They won skirmish after skirmish, killing countless natives Meanwhile, starvation, sickness, and exhaustion filled the cemetery in La Isabela.Humiliated by the calamity, the admiral set off for Spain on March 10, 1496, to beg the king and queen for money and supplies When he returned two years later the third of what would become four voyages across the Atlanticso little was left of La Isabela that he landed on the opposite side of the island, in Santo Domingo, a new settlement founded by his brother Bartolom, whom he had left behind Coln never again set foot in his first colony and it was almost forgotten Despite the brevity of its existence, La Isabela marked the beginning of an enormous change the creation of the modern Caribbean landscape Coln and his crew did not voyage alone They were accompanied by a menagerie of insects, plants, mammals, and microorganisms Beginning with La Isabela, European expeditions brought cattle, sheep, and horses, along with crops like sugarcane originally from New Guinea , wheat from the Middle East , bananas from Africa , and coffee also from Africa Equally important, creatures the colonists knew nothing about hitchhiked along for the ride Earthworms, mosquitoes, and cockroaches honeybees, dandelions, and African grasses rats of every descriptionall of them poured from the hulls of Colns vessels and those that followed, rushing like eager tourists into lands that had never seen their like before From the Hardcover edition.A New York Times Notable Book A TIME Magazine Best Book of the Year A Washington Post Notable BookFascinating Lively A convincing explanation of why our world is the way it is The New York Times Book ReviewEven the wisest readers will find many surprises here Like 1491, Mann s sequel will change worldviews San Francisco ChronicleExemplary in its union of meaningful fact with good storytelling, 1493 ranges across continents and centuries to explain how the world we inhabit came to be The Washington Post Engaging Mann deftly illuminates contradictions on a human scale the blind violence and terror at Jamestown, the cruel exploitation of labor in the silver mines of Bolivia, the awe felt by Europeans upon first seeing a rubber ball bounce The New Yorker Revelatory Lev Grossman, Time MagazineCompelling and eye opening Publishers Weekly Top 100 Books of 2011A book to celebrate A bracingly persuasive counternarrative to the prevailing mythology about the historical significance of the discovery of America 1493 is rich in detail, analytically expansive and impossible to summarize Manns book deserves a prominent place among that very rare class of books that can make a difference in how we see the world, although it is neither a polemic nor a work of advocacy Thoughtful, learned and respectful of its subject matter, 1493 is a splendid achievement The OregonianDespite his scope, Mann remains grounded in fascinating details Such technical insights enhance a very human story, told in lively and accessible prose Cleveland Plain DealerManns excitement never flags as he tells his breathtaking story There is grandeur in this view of the past that looks afresh at the different parts of the world and the parts each played in shaping it Financial TimesA muscular, densely documented follow up to Manns 1491 Like its predecessor, 1493 runs to than 400 pages, but it moves at a gallop As a historian Mann should be admired not just for his broad scope and restless intelligence but for his biological sensitivity At every point of his tale he keeps foremost in his mind the effect of humans activities on the broader environment they inhabit The Wall Street JournalEvenhandedness, a sense of wonder, the gift of turning a phrase Mann loves the world and adopts it as his own ScienceCharles C Mann glories in reality, immersing his reader in complexity The worn clichs crumble as readers gain introductions to the freshest of the systems of analysis gendered in the first post Columbian millennium Alfred W Crosby, author of The Columbian ExchangeIn the wake of his groundbreaking book 1491 Charles Mann has once again produced a brilliant and riveting work that will forever change the way we see the world Mann shows how the ecological collision of Europe and the Americas transformed virtually every aspect of human history Beautifully written, and packed with startling research, 1493 is a monumental achievement David Grann, author of The Lost City of Z 1493 is readable and well written, based on his usual broad research, travels and interviews A fascinating and important topic, admirably told John Hemming, author of Tree of RiversFascinating Convincing A spellbinding account of how an unplanned collision of unfamiliar animals, vegetables, minerals and diseases produced unforeseen wealth, misery, social upheaval and the modern world Kirkus Reviews, starred review A fascinating survey A lucid historical panorama thats studded with entertaining studies of Chinese pirate fleets, courtly tobacco rituals, and the bloody feud between Jamestown colonists and the Indians who fed and fought them, to name a few Brilliantly assembling colorful details into big picture insights, Manns fresh challenge to Eurocentric histories puts interdependence at the origin of modernity Publishers Weekly, starred review Charles Mann expertly shows how the complex, interconnected ecological and economic consequences of the European discovery of the Americas shaped many unexpected aspects of the modern world This is an example of the best kind of history book one that changes the way you look at the world, even as it informs and entertains Tom Standage, author of A History of the World in Six GlassesA landmark book Entrancingly provocative, 1493 bristles with illuminations, insights and surprises Shelf AwarenessFascinating Engaging and well written Information and insight abound on every page This dazzling display of erudition, theory and insight will help readers to view history in a fresh way BookPageSpirited One thing is indisputable Mann is definitely global in his outlook and tribal in his thinking Manns taxonomy of the ecological, political, religious, economic, anthropological and mystical melds together in an intriguing whole cloth The Star Ledger Mann has managed the difficult trick of telling a complicated story in engaging and clear prose while refusing to reduce its ambiguities to slogans He is not a professional historian, but most professionals could learn a lot from the deft way he does this 1493 is thoroughly researched and up to date, combining scholarship from fields as varied as world history, immunology, and economics, but Mann wears his learning lightly He serves up one arresting detail after another, always in vivid language Most impressive of all, he manages to turn plants, germs, insects and excrement into the lead actors in his drama while still parading before us an unforgettable cast of human characters He makes even the most unpromising sounding subjects fascinating I, for one, will never look at a piece of rubber in quite the same way now The Columbian Exchange has shaped everything about the modern world It brought us the plants we tend in our gardens and the pests that eat them And as it accelerates in the 21st century, it may take both away again If you want to understand why, read 1493 The New York Times Book Review Mann is trying to do much than punch holes in conventional wisdom hes trying to piece together an elaborate, alternative history that describes profound changes in the world since the original voyage of Columbus What s most surprising is that he manages to do this in such an engaging way He writes with an incredibly dry wit Austin American StatesmanManns book is jammed with facts and factoids, trivia and moments of great insight that take on power as they accumulate The Washington Post Although many have written about the impact of Europeans on the New World, few have told the worldwide story in a manner accessible to lay readers as effectively as Mann does here Library JournalThe chief strength of Manns richly associative books lies in their ability to reveal new patterns among seemingly disparate pieces of accepted knowledge Theyre stuffed with forehead slapping aha moments If Mann were to work his way methodically through the odd numbered years of history, he could be expected to publish a book about the global impact of the Great Recession sometime in the middle of the next millennium If its as good as 1493, it would be worth the wait Richmond Times DispatchNone of us could travel with Columbus in 1492 But thats OK, because in 1493 we can take an even exhilarating ride This powerful rethinking of the origins and consequences of globalization is so illuminating, its scary Carl Safina, author of A Sea In Flames and The View From Lazy PointAlmost mind boggling in its scope, enthusiasm and erudition Almost every page of 1493 contains some extraordinarily provocative argument or arrestingly bizarre detail Ranging freely across time and space, Manns book is full of compelling stories A tremendously provocative, learned and surprising read The Times of London Uncovering the New World Columbus Created Charles C Mann on FREE shipping qualifying offers A deeply engaging new history of how European settlements in post Colombian Americas shaped world Kindle edition by Download it once and read your device, PC, phones or tablets Use features like bookmarks, note taking highlighting while reading Hevea brasiliensis Wikipedia Hevea brasiliensis, Par rubber tree, sharinga seringueira, or, most commonly, tree plant, is a belonging to family EuphorbiaceaeIt economically important member genus because milky latex extracted Columbian exchange The Columbian exchange, also known as interchange, named for Christopher Columbus, was widespread transfer plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, ideas between Americas, West Africa, Old th centuries It relates colonization trade following s voyage Native American Alaska Native Heritage Month, Grades K Prior arrival Europeans, indigenous populations were varied stationary Mayas Yucatan nomadic Plains Indians Explore culture with lessons, activities, resources grades Best Books About History If you want learn about have countless books choose from problem that focus just few topics, such Revolution Civil War, ignoring other topics helped I ve compiled list feel are must reads every lover Reverse Phone Lookup Number Search Spokeo Spokeo one nation trusted sites uncovering scammers, telemarketers, criminals, catfishers For over years, we people protect themselves their loved ones our reverse phone search Revelations Before Mann, correspondent Atlantic, Science, Wired, has written Fortune, York Times, Smithsonian, Technology Review, Vanity Fair, Washington Post, well TV network HBO series Law OrderA three time National Magazine Award finalist, he recipient writing awards Bar Association, Institute finished My Fertility Crisis, which excerpted longer piece can get author single woman her early who going through IVFCharles born an journalist author, specializing scientific His book won Academies Communication best year He coauthor four books, contributing editor Atlantic Monthly, Wired In this groundbreaking work science, history, archaeology, radically alters understanding before Contrary what so many Americans school football Andre April , businessman former player played defensive end Football League NFL Redskins San Francisco ersMann Pro Bowler Browse By Author M Project Gutenberg free ebooks online Did know help us produce proof page day Go Distributed Proofreaders Montgomery Burns Simpsons Wiki FANDOM powered Plantagenet Schicklgruber Burns, Monty CM Mr antagonist minor characters Movie prominent L Anderson Firm, LLC Expect exceptional service professionalism attorneys Call consultation 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created

    • Format Kindle
    • 560 pages
    • 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created
    • Charles C Mann
    • Anglais
    • 2017-07-12T16:03+02:00